June 25, 2010 § Leave a comment
>Communication [Mitleilung] –> Being-with-others
Mitdasein is ‘shared’ in discourse. Communication is explicit for what is implicit.
Dasein is always already in understanding: If I listen to people speak in another language, I understand these are ‘words’, not merely sounds.
We understand the other before the message.
“idle talk” [Gerude] –> talked-over
Idle talk offers some resource toward understanding what is encountered.
Being in the world is always already being with others. Having relevance and significance. This does not belong to me alone. Much of innerworldly beings that we encounter are relevant-to-others. Think of memories of dead relatives.
Others not as objectively present, but others as-Dasein, as temporal, being toward a future, thrown into the world, projecting future, engaged in meaningful activities (159).
See Sartre on absence in Being and Nothingness: Pierre is not there.
negitate: meaningful nothingness – absence of loved ones.
Dasein lets things be (Charles Scott, Vanderbelt on middle voice)
Considerateness and tolerance (161).
The “they” [Das man] as distinguished from authentic – doing for myself what the they would do – selfhood.
The they is like a newspaper – for everyone to see – not for me. Public. Reminds me of the headlines in Ulysses.
At night is the levelling down of Dasein. Das man disburdens dasein of responsibility.
Everyone is other and no one is himself (166).
The “they” is an existential and primordial to Dasein.
Dasein and Being-toward-death [I.6. 41]
Being ahead of one’s self: already-in-the-world as being-together-with-inner-worldly-beings.
Care is always-already situated (in-the-world-with-these-beings). Care is always ahead of itself.
For Dasein, there is always something in store, something outstanding. Dasein, as long as it is (alive), is never whole – it achieves wholeness only in death.
Standig Unabgischlossenbit: constant / structural lack of closure as to being.
The world makes possible the being-with-others. The world is a context of significance. With respect to the deceased, we are bystanders. Death is nothing to us. All of us. Deathe points to the mortality that is the necessary feature of my life. Dasein is essentially determined by its not-yet. The final yet is death. Meaningfulness is still made in respect to that death.
Immortals have no care. God cannot be sorry.
For the Epicureans, Gods exist. They are complete. They are sublimely indifferent to humans.
Angst discloses the structure of Dasein. Angst is illuminating or detachment – noth the pressure of “having-to-get-things-done.”
Das man can never experience death.
The structure of authenticity is what no one else can do for me, what I must do for myself.
Death is a way to be.
End. Not being at an end, but toward appropriating my life as mortal. Meaningfulness is made possible by mortal temporality.
Babies don’t have angst.
Angst is an attunement that points me toward my thrown-ness into the world.
Xenothenes says Homer and Hesiod lied. “Drama” comes from the verb “to do /act”, but doing comes from the structure of care, anthropomorphizing the immortals.
Resolute-ness of authenticity – understanding the weight of what we take up, the construction or possibility of meaning.
Das man tranquilizes us as to the essential structure of our death. “Life goes on” is absurd. Obladiblada.
Death is a possibility-of-being-of Dasein – that possibility toward which Dasein relates itself.
Since Dasein is not objectively present, we cannot expect to be able to analyze it.
Death is a distinctive or exceptional possibility of Dasein.
ausgezeichnete: distinctive / exceptional
Immenence: Be or stand before; you can not not stand before death; Dasein must take it over.
Immenence: Standing in relation to Death reveals to Dasein its being-thrown-ness-into-the-world. Mortality speaks to our thrown-ness.
Angst in the face of death is “anxiety in the face of that potentiality-for-Being which is one’s ownmost, non-relational, and not to be outstripped” (295).
The proper response to angst is not calming.
Angst is the disclosedness of the fact that Dasein exists as thrown being toward its end. Angst is about the shear ability to be ______.
Human beings must forget death in order to cope with life. Culture helps us forget death.
Das man can only relate to death as “one dies” or “everyone dies” – an unpleasant fact, but it’s a certain one. Some objective event in the world. This is the way we turn death into something other than what it is (298). Das man wants us to feel calm about death. The that it is = angst.
Fear takes a specific object, but angst has no specific object. A peculiar calm actually pervades angst.
ek-sistence = standing out
Dasein’s transcendence is not partaking of something divine; rather, it is the disclosedness of our being-toward-death.
How might we relate ourselves toward death authentically?
Nietzche’s Amor fati: love of fate. The eternal recurrence of the same.
Say your life were repeated eternally. Do you recoil or embrace your fate?
[Vorlaufe] for-running –> Anticipation and resoluteness.
Being toward death is anticipation, fore-running, scouting out up to my death to project myself into my ownmost possibility of being. Therefore, anticipation shows itself as the possibility of authentic existence, seizing hold resolutely of my possibilities as my own – the possibility of being ripped away from the they and individualized.
Having-the-world-there is constitutive for Dasein; it also belongs to the individual Dasein.
Mortality frees you from the assorted empty possibilities urged upon you (presumedly by Das man) so that you can authentically take over your own distinctive possibilities (311).
Resoluteness = open-ness to the situation in which we find ourselves connected with fore-running up to our deaths (353).
Being guilty – not in a moral sense – [Schuldig-sein] “being guilty” – be radically accountable for one’s self.
null = mortality
nullity = being thrown
Dasein is thrown being-toward-death, the null ground of its nullity. Being wholely responsible for our lives.
Sartre takes this crypto-normativity. How is guilt “non-moral”? He says it is existential guilt, not the geneology of morals’ “feeling” of guilt (354).
[Eigentlichkeit] Authenticity. One’s own. Owned-ness – “enowing”
conscience = with knowldge, not moral, [das Gewissan]
Heidegger understands his resoluteness in terms of his Nazism.
– Passionate anti-communism (sympathy with Right Wing politics)
– Skeptical about democracy
Victor Farias Heidegger and National Socialism
Ott: Martin Heidegger: A Political Life
1949 Bremen Lectures: “The Thing” and ” Enframing (Ge-Stell)”
1953 “The Question Concerning Technology”
We are made to reveal beings as resources.
Technology = nature as resource
Modern Science is an application of the Ge-Stell, the essence of technology.